Unit-I: Sets and Functions
Unit-II: Algebra
Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry
Unit-IV: Calculus
Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning
Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability

Bar Graphs

Bar graphs are composed of a number of bars which may be either horizontal or vertical and each bar represents a magnitude of some variables with regards to time or space.

Types of Bar Graphs -:

(i) Simple Bar Graphs

In simple bar graphs, one bar represents only one figure and as such there will be as many bars as the number of observations.

Example:

Year: 1981 1991 2001 2011
Population : 14.6 17.5 21.9 26.9

(ii) Compound/Subdivided Bar Graphs -:

It consists of sub-divided bars and each subdivision represents a component of the total magnitude at the given variable.

 \to In a bar more than 2 components can be shown depending on the data.

Example:

State Workers Non-Workers Total
A.P 15 08 23
W.B 11 11 22
ODISHA 06 07 13

(iii) Percentage Bar Graphs -:

In percentage bar graphs each component is expressed as a percentage of the data.

 \to This is also one type of compound bar graphs.

Example -:

Year
Item 1991 1992 1993
Wheat 43.0 53.1 50
Barley 22.8 17.3 18.6
Oats 34.8 29.6 31.4
Total 100 100 100

(iv) Multiple Bar Graphs -:

   It consists of bars representing aggregates of two or more interrelated variables.

    Example -:

Years Imports Exports
1991 7930 4260
1992 8850 5225
1993 9780 6150

(v) Deviation Bar Graphs -:

It is used to show certain quantities which have both positive and negative values, such as profit and loss, surplus and slack, import and export, etc.

 \to For readily recognizability the positive and negative values are shown in two opposite directions.

   Example -:

Villages 2001 2011 Difference
A 200 250 +50
B 300 340 +40
C 300 290 -10
D 400 420 +20
E 340 290 -50

Histograms -:

The diagrams of the continuous rectangles are called Histograms.

Example -:

Age Frequency
10-20 4
20-30 7
30-40 5
40-50 4
50-60 3
67-70 2
Total 25

Cartograms -:

A cartogram is a map. But a cartogram is a unique type of map because it combines statistical data with geographical location. Physical maps show relative area, distance and terrain, but they do not provide any data about the inhabits of a place.

Examples -:  Maps of any countries states etc.

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