The foundation of the theory of Probability are believed to have been laid by French Mathematicians **Fermat** ,**Pascal** and **Laplace,** Italian Mathematician **Bernoulli** and a host of others.

An Italian mathematician **Jerome Cardan** in his little book **`Liber de Ludo Aleae’**, considered to be a gambler’s manual, gave most of the laws of Probability.

A solid Mathematical foundation to the modern theory of probability was given by the Russian Mathematician **A.N. Kolmogorov**.

The theory of Probability had its origin in the exchange of a series of letters between **Pascal** and **Fermat** in the year ; it involved a very simple question posed by a gambler named **‘Chevalier de Mere’**, how fairly the stakes at a game of dice were the be distributed if the game was abruptly halted at some point before completion. The answer to this question involved a sample space that is not uniform.

__Basic Concepts:__

Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions on how likely an event is to occur; or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The Probability of an event is a number between , where roughly speaking, indicates the impossibility of the event and indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur.

__Tossing off a fair Coin:__

When a coin is tossed, the two outcomes (“heads and tails”) are both equally probable; the probability of “heads” equals the probability of “tails”, and since no other outcomes are possible the probability of either “heads” or “tails” is that is i.e. If a coin is tossed then either “head” or “tail” will be a possible outcome, not both at a time.

__Rolling of a Dice:__

A dice have faces occurring When a dice is rolled outcomes are equally probable; the probability of , the probability of the probability of are equal. The probability of occurring one of the faces is .

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